Jump to navigation Jump to search « Nigritude » redirects here. Négritude is a framework of critique and literary theory, anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache de langue française PDF mainly by francophone intellectuals, writers, and politicians of the African diaspora during the 1930s. Négritude inspired a range of other movements, one of these being « Black is beautiful ».
Cette anthologie fut publiée pour la première fois en 1948 à l’occasion du centenaire de la Révolution de 1848 et de la publication des décrets abolissant définitivement l’esclavage et instituant l’instruction gratuite et obligatoire dans les colonies. « C’est ainsi que les hommes de couleur, singulièrement les Nègres, ont pu accéder non seulement à la liberté du citoyen, mais encore et surtout à cette vie personnelle que seule donne la culture. » (L. S. Senghor)
« Voici des hommes noirs debout qui nous regardent et je vous souhaite de ressentir comme moi le saisissement d’être vus. » Dans un texte préliminaire, Orphée noir, lu et discuté avec passion, notamment aux États-Unis, Jean-Paul Sartre témoigne avec lyrisme de « l’éminente dignité de la négritude » et analyse l’importance littéraire mais aussi politique de cette Anthologie, dont les uvres apportent « leur contribution à l’humanisme français d’aujourd’hui, qui se fait véritablement universel parce que fécondé par les sucs de toutes les races de la terre. » (L. S. Senghor)
The Black is Beautiful movement was a cultural movement that began in the 1960s in the United States and was led by African Americans. Négritude is a constructed noun from the 1930s based upon the French word nègre, which, like its English counterpart, was derogatory and had a different meaning from « Black man ». Other diverse thinkers include Charles Baudelaire, André Breton, René Maran, and Arthur Rimbaud. The Harlem Renaissance, a literary style developed in Harlem in Manhattan during the 1920s and 1930s, influenced the Negritude philosophy. During the 1920s and 1930s, young black students and scholars, primarily from France’s colonies and territories, assembled in Paris, where they were introduced to writers of the Harlem Renaissance by Paulette Nardal and her sister Jane.
Although each of the initiators had his own ideas about the purpose and styles of Négritude, the philosophy was characterized generally by opposition to colonialism, denunciation of Europe’s alleged inhumanity, and rejection of Western domination and ideas. Motivation for the Negritude movement was a result of Aimé Césaire’s, Leopold Senghor’s, and Leon Damas’s dissatisfaction, disgust, and personal conflict over the state of the Afro-French experience in France. Césaire was a poet, playwright, and politician from Martinique. He studied in Paris, where he discovered the Black community and « rediscovered Africa ». He saw Négritude as the fact of being Black, acceptance of this fact, and appreciation of the history and culture, and of Black people.
Neither Césaire—who after returning to Martinique after his studies was elected mayor of Fort de France, the capital, and a representative of Martinique in France’s Parliament—nor Senghor in Senegal envisaged political independence from France. Négritude would, according to Senghor, enable Black people in French lands to have a « seat at the give and take table as equals ». Poet and the later first president of Sénégal, Senghor used Négritude to work toward a universal valuation of African people. He advocated a modern incorporation of the expression and celebration of traditional African customs and ideas. This interpretation of Négritude tended to be the most common, particularly during later years. Damas was a French Guianese poet and National Assembly member. He had a militant style of defending « black qualities » and rejected any kind of reconciliation with Caucasians.
Two particular anthologies were pivotal to the movement, which would serve as manifestos for the movement. As a manifesto for the Négritude movement Damas’ introduction was more political and cultural in nature. A distinctive feature of his anthology and beliefs was that Damas felt his message was one for the colonized in general, and included poets from Indochina and Madagascar. This is sharply in contrast to Senghor’s anthology, which would be published two years later. Négritude was criticized by some Black writers during the 1960s as insufficiently militant. Keorapetse Kgositsile said that the term Négritude was based too much on Blackness according to a Caucasian aesthetic, and was unable to define a new kind of perception of African-ness that would free Black people and Black art from Caucasian conceptualizations altogether. The Nigerian dramatist, poet, and novelist Wole Soyinka opposed Négritude.
He believed that by deliberately and outspokenly being proud of their ethnicity, Black people were automatically on the defensive. American physician Benjamin Rush, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and early abolitionist, used the term negritude to imagine a rhetorical « disease » which he said was a mild form of leprosy, the only cure of which was to become white. Novelist Norman Mailer used the term to describe boxer George Foreman’s physical and psychological presence in his book The Fight, a journalistic treatment of the legendary Ali vs. Anténor Firmin and Haiti’s contribution to anthropology ». Ngo-Ngijol Banoum, Bertrade, « Négritude », Africana Age. Murphey, David « Birth of a Nation?
The Origins of Senegalese Literature in French », Research in African Literatures 39. Jones », English Department, University of California, Berkeley. Institute on Race, Health Care and the Law, The University of Dayton School of Law. Christian Filostrat, « La Négritude et la ‘Conscience raciale et révolution sociale’ d’Aimé Césaire ». Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache.