France, essentially an outsourced customs, excise and indirect tax operation. In the 17th and 18th centuries the fermiers généraux became immensely rich and figure art revolution in the Roussillon PDF in the history of cultural patronage, as supporters of French music, major collectors of paintings and sculpture, patrons of the marchands-merciers and consumers of the luxury arts in the vanguard of Parisian fashions. Direct land tax imposed on French peasant and non-noble households, based on how much land they held.
As the century turned Aristide Maillol was simplifying the sensuous lines of his monumental sculptures in the small seaside town of Banyuls-sur-Mer. By 1905 Matisse and Derain were exploding pure colour all over their Fauvist paintings just along the coast in Collioure. George Daniel de Monfreid was taking delivery of Gauguin’s canvases from the South Seas at his Château St Clément in Corneilla-de-Conflent and sharing them with Gustave Fayet of the Abbaye de Fontfroide near Narbonne. And, a few years later, Frank Burty Haviland, Manolo and Déodat de Séverac, whilst on a visit to the sculptor Maillol, discovered Céret. When in 1910 they were joined by Picasso, then by Braque and Juan Gris, Céret was well on the way to becoming known as the Mecca of Cubism. Why the Roussillon? How did the revolution reach Paris and then the world from two obscure towns on the Mediterranean edge of the Pyrenees? How did the local painters and collectors contribute to the revolution? What were the links with the Paris dealers and the all important Salons? Who were the artists’ wives and mistresses? And what mark have they left here?… In Art Revolution in the Roussillon their stories come alive. Tales of artists born and bred in this remote and at the time little known corner of France are intertwined with the stories of the visiting artists from Paris who were challenging and changing the face of modern art. The gathering of these tales and the exploration of the Roussillon’s recent art history has proved has proved a fascinating task.
In some provinces, the principle of taille réelle was used, which meant that the tax was based on the actual market value of the real estate. National tariffs on various products, including wine and tobacco. A local tariff levied on products entering the cities, especially Paris. King or both and generally considered by the peasant to be arbitrary and humiliating. The Ferme générale developed at a time when the monarchy suffered from chronic financial difficulties.
Treasury foreseeable and regular receipts, while reducing the perception of its role in tax-collection. In 1598 the Superintendent of Finances, the Duke of Sully, entrusted tax collection to one farm instead of five separate ones, and subjected the collection of duties raised in the provinces to the rights of the King. The process was further developed under the aegis of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Minister of Finance to King Louis XIV. Although sometimes of obscure origin, the financiers which took these rights often quickly accumulated immense fortunes which enabled them to play a significant political and social role. In 1726, all the existing farms were gathered in a single lease. The forty farmers-general, who held guarantees as contractors of the lease, became powerful and fabulously rich.