Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664) PDF

He is known primarily for his religious paintings depicting monks, nuns, and francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664) PDF, and for his still-lifes. His first marriage, in 1617, was to María Paet who was nine years older. María died after the birth of their third child in 1624.


Francisco de Zurbarán (1598-1664) est un peintre emblématique de la période baroque espagnole. Né en Estrémadure, il apprend son métier à Séville, où il réside la majeure partie de sa vie. En réalisant d’importantes commandes pour divers ordres religieux, cet interprète de la Contre-Réforme développe une oeuvre d’exception, où la représentation du sacré mêle la vision extatique des mystiques au réalisme d’une expérience essentiellement humaine. Après son passage à la cour madrilène, son style atteint sa pleine maturité dans les commandes monastiques de la fin des années 30. Par ailleurs, en réponse au goût contemporain, il exporte ses peintures, dont les fastueuses saintes martyres produites en série, vers les vice-royautés du Nouveau Monde. L’artiste finira ses jours à Madrid, où il livre une peinture dévotionnelle de format plus réduit, de nature plus douce et intimiste. Tenu pour l’un des plus grands peintres du Siècle d’or espagnol, Zurbarán se distingue par la rigueur de ses compositions, l’expression fervente du sentiment religieux, l’ordonnance dépouillée de ses natures mortes et l’attention portée aux objets du quotidien, dans leur émouvante simplicité. Zurbarán est à la fois un produit de son époque et un artiste singulier, dont la puissance du langage plastique exerce une fascination intacte.

In 1625 he married again to wealthy widow Beatriz de Morales. On January 17, 1626, Francisco de Zurbarán signed a contract with the prior of the Dominican monastery San Pablo el Real in Seville, agreeing to produce 21 paintings within eight months. Towards 1630 he was appointed painter to Philip IV, and there is a story that on one occasion the sovereign laid his hand on the artist’s shoulder, saying « Painter to the king, king of painters ». After 1640 his austere, harsh, hard-edged style was unfavorably compared to the sentimental religiosity of Murillo and Zurbarán’s reputation declined. On February 7, 1644, Francisco married a third time with another wealthy widow, Leonor de Torder. It was only in 1658, late in Zurbarán’s life, that he moved to Madrid in search of work and renewed his contact with Velázquez.

It is unknown whether Zurbarán had the opportunity to see the paintings of Caravaggio, only that his work features a similarly realistic use of chiaroscuro and tenebrism. The painter thought by some art historians to have had the greatest influence on his characteristically severe compositions was Juan Sánchez Cotán. He painted his figures directly from nature, and he made great use of the lay-figure in the study of draperies, in which he was particularly proficient. Carthusians are abundant in his paintings. Murillo and Titian in their looser brushwork and softer contrasts.

In 1631 he painted the great altarpiece of the Apothosis of St. Between 1628 and 1634 he painted four scenes from the life of St. Peter Nolasco for the Principal Monastery of the Calced Mercedarians in Seville. Jacob and his twelve sons, a series depicting the patriarch Jacob and his 12 sons, is held at Auckland Castle in Bishop Auckland.

His principal pupils were Bernabé de Ayala, Juan Caro de Tavira, and the Polanco brothers. Zurbarán was the subject of a major exhibition in 1987 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, which traveled in 1988 to Galeries nationales du Grand Palais in Paris. Santo Domingo en Soriano, 1626, Santa María Magdalena, Seville. Saint Luke as a Painter before Christ on the Cross, c. The Spanish Portrait: From El Greco to Picasso.