French Composition and Grammar Review (Classic Reprint) PDF

French Composition and Grammar Review (Classic Reprint) PDF or paste a DOI name into the text box. Jump to navigation Jump to search « Trovatore » redirects here. For the opera, see Il trovatore. The troubadour Perdigon playing his fiddle.


Since the word troubadour is etymologically masculine, a female troubadour is usually called a trobairitz. The troubadour school or tradition began in the late 11th century in Occitania, but it subsequently spread to Italy and Spain. The texts of troubadour songs deal mainly with themes of chivalry and courtly love. Most were metaphysical, intellectual, and formulaic.

Many were humorous or vulgar satires. The oldest mention of the word troubadour as trobadors is found in a 12th-century Occitan text by Cercamon. Jean de Nostredame, Vies des anciens Poètes provençaux, p. The French word is borrowed itself from the Occitan word trobador.

It has the support of some historians, specialists of literature and musicologists to justify of the troubadours’ origins in Arabic Andalusian musical practices. Some proponents of this theory argue, only on cultural grounds, that both etymologies may well be correct, and that there may have been a conscious poetic exploitation of the phonological coincidence between trobar and the triliteral Arabic root Ṭ-R-B when Sufi Islamic musical forms with a love theme first spread from Al-Andalus to southern France. In archaic and classical troubadour poetry, the word is only used in a mocking sense, having more or less the meaning of « somebody who makes things up ». The early study of the troubadours focused intensely on their origins.