Hilaire de Poitiers PDF

Hilaire de Poitiers PDF the battle of 732 between the Franks and the Umayyads, see Battle of Tours. Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland.


Théologien latin et Père de l’Eglise, Hilaire voit le jour à Poitiers, vers 315. Devenu évêque, il prit parti très tôt dans la lutte contre l’arianisme. Son opposition énergique à un certain nombre d’évêques pro-ariens lui vaudra d’être exilé en Phrygie, où il rédigea son principal ouvrage, Sur la Trinité. De retour à Poitiers vers la fin de 36o, il consacrera les dernières années de sa vie aux affaires de son diocèse et à l’étude de l’Écriture. L’œuvre d’Hilaire constitue un des grands moments de la théologie latine. Ce témoin important des premiers siècles du christianisme nous ramène à l’essentiel de la foi chrétienne : Dieu fait homme pour le salut de l’humanité.

Arms of John III of Grailly. Arms of the Dauphin of France. Blason Guy Ier de Clermont de Nesle. The Battle of Poitiers was a major English victory in the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years’ War.

It was fought on 19 September 1356 in Nouaillé, near the city of Poitiers in Aquitaine, western France. The effect of the defeat on France was catastrophic, leaving Dauphin Charles to rule the country. Charles faced populist revolts across the kingdom in the wake of the battle, which had destroyed the prestige of the French upper-class. Poitiers was the second major English victory of the Hundred Years’ War.

Following the death of Charles IV of France in 1328, Philip, Count of Valois, had been crowned as his successor, over his closest male relative and legal successor, Edward III of England. In the late 1340s and early 1350s, the Black Death decimated the population of Western Europe, bringing all significant efforts in campaigning to a halt, one such victim being Philip VI of France himself. In 1355, Edward III laid out plans for a second major campaign. Edward’s forces met little resistance, sacking numerous settlements, until they reached the Loire River at Tours. They were unable to take the castle or burn the town due to a heavy rainstorm.

This delay allowed King John II to attempt to pin down and destroy Edward’s army. Edward arrayed his army in a defensive posture among the hedges and orchards of the area, in front of the forest of Nouaillé. He deployed his front line of longbowmen behind a particularly prominent thick hedge, through which the road ran at right angles. The Earl of Douglas, commanding the Scottish division in the French army, advised King John that the attack should be delivered on foot, with horses being particularly vulnerable to English arrows. The English army was led by Edward, the Black Prince and composed primarily of English and Welsh troops, though there was a large contingent of Gascon and Breton soldiers with the army.

Like the earlier engagement at Crécy, the power of the English army lay in the longbow, a tall, thick self-bow made of yew. Geoffrey the Baker wrote that the English archers under the earl of Salisbury « made their arrows prevail over the knights’ armor, » but the bowmen on the other flank, under Warwick, were initially ineffective against the mounted French men-at-arms who enjoyed the double protection of steel plate armor and large leather shields. Battle of Crécy, and two of the key commanders, Sir John Chandos, and Captal de Buch were both experienced soldiers. The French army was led by John II of France, and was composed largely of native French soldiers, though there was a contingent of German knights, and a large force of Scottish soldiers. Dauphin Charles, the second by the Duke of Orléans, while the third, the largest, was led by the King himself.

Prior to the battle, the local prelate, Cardinal Hélie de Talleyrand-Périgord attempted to broker a truce between the two sides, as recorded in the writings of the English commander, Sir John Chandos. At the start of the battle, the English removed their baggage train from the field, prompting a hasty French assault, believing that what they saw was the English retreating. The retreating vanguard collided with the advancing division of the Duke of Orléans, throwing the French army into chaos. Seeing the Dauphin’s troops falling back, Orléans’ division fell back in confusion.

The third, and strongest, division led by the King advanced forth, and the two withdrawing divisions coalesced and resumed their advance against the English. Jean II, the Good, being captured. As the French advanced, the English launched their charge. Stunned by the attack, the impetus carried the English and Gascon forces right into the French line. Simultaneously, de Buch’s mobile reserve of mounted troops fell upon the French left flank and rear. Fearful of encirclement, the cohesion of the French army disintegrated as many soldiers attempted to flee the field. Low on arrows, the English and Welsh archers abandoned their bows and ran forward to join the melée.

Following the surrender of the King and his son Philip, the French army had broken up and left the field, ending the battle. Following the battle, Edward resumed his march back to the English stronghold at Bordeaux. Jean de Venette, a Carmelite friar, vividly describes the chaos that ensued following the battle. The demise of the French nobility at the battle, only ten years from the catastrophe at Crécy, threw the kingdom into chaos.