Kolyma PDF

It kolyma PDF bounded by the East Siberian Sea and the Arctic Ocean in the north and the Sea of Okhotsk to the south. The area, part of which is within the Arctic Circle, has a subarctic climate with very cold winters lasting up to six months of the year.

1956. La mort du  » petit père des peuples  » a plongé le pays dans le chaos. Tandis que Khrouchtchev entreprend sa politique de déstalinisation, les langues se délient : le temps est venu de régler les comptes.

Ex-agent zélé du MGB, Leo Demidov, aujourd’hui repenti, est à la tête d’un département de criminologie. Avec sa femme, Raisa, il a adopté deux fillettes, mais l’aînée, Zoya, hait ce père de substitution. Et elle n’est pas la seule…
Car, dans l’ombre, quelqu’un attend son heure, une femme que la colère et le sentiment d’injustice ont rendue ivre de vengeance.

Pour sauver les siens, Leo n’aura bientôt plus d’autre choix que de se jeter dans la gueule du loup : le terrifiant goulag de Kolyma…

Permafrost and tundra cover a large part of the region. The principal town Magadan has nearly 100,000 inhabitants and is the largest port in north-eastern Russia. It has a large fishing fleet and remains open year-round thanks to icebreakers. Magadan is served by the nearby Sokol Airport. There are many public and private farming enterprises. During archaeological investigations of Paleolithic sites on the Angara, in 1936 the unique Stone Age site of Buret’ was discovered which yielded an anthropomorphic sculpture, skulls of rhinoceroses, and surface and semisubterranean dwellings. Under Joseph Stalin’s rule, Kolyma became the most notorious region for the Gulag labor camps.

Tens of thousands or more people may have died en route to the area or in the Kolyma’s series of gold mining, road building, lumbering, and construction camps between 1932 and 1954. Gold and platinum were discovered in the region in the early 20th century. The initial efforts to develop the region began in 1932, with the building of the town of Magadan by forced labor. Many projects in the USSR were already using forced labor, most notably the White Sea-Baltic Canal. In 1932 expeditions pushed their way into the interior of the Kolyma, embarking on the construction of the Kolyma Highway, which was to become known as the Road of Bones. Eventually, about 80 different camps dotted the region of the uninhabited taiga.

The original director of the Kolyma camps was Eduard Berzin, a Cheka officer. At the height of the Purges, around 1937, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s account quotes camp commander Naftaly Frenkel as establishing the new law of the Archipelago: « We have to squeeze everything out of a prisoner in the first three months—after that we don’t need him anymore. Many of the prisoners in Kolyma were academics or intellectuals. Ukrainian mathematician who by the early 1930s had received considerable acclaim in the West. After a summary trial, apparently for reluctance to take part in the accusations of some of his colleagues, he was sent to Kolyma where he died in 1942.