L’Ascendant de Darwin sur Freud PDF

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L’amour-propre de l’humanité a, selon Freud, connu trois grandes vexations cosmologique avec Copernic, biologique avec Darwin et psychologique avec lui. Ainsi Freud s’inscrit-il dans la descendance de celui qui a énoncé, preuves à l’appui, que l’homme était issu de la série animale et qui, comme lui, Freud, a suscité le scandale.Ce livre, produit d’une longue et minutieuse investigation, recense pour la première fois tous les documents témoignant de ce qui rapproche et sépare la théorie darwinienne des conceptions freudiennes. Darwin n’a cessé d’exercer un attrait puissant sur Freud, depuis le jour où son professeur de zoologie à l’Université, Carl Claus, le lui a fait sérieusement connaître. Que l’on pense, par exemple, aux notions de régression, de transmission héréditaire, de conflit, ou encore à l’hypothèse de la horde primitive, au constat de la sauvagerie humaine, et à tout ce qui, chez Darwin comme chez Freud, relève du fantasme des origines. Mais concepts et modèles théoriques se transforment et se compliquent nécessairement en étant transférés du biologique au psychique.Voici donc un livre qui, comme le montre Patrick Lacoste dans sa préface, ouvre un débat dans l’histoire des idées et qui nous rappelle, contre la prétention scientiste, qu’avec Darwin, qu’avec Freud, l’imagination a heureusement droit de cité dans le domaine scientifique.

Lacan was born in Paris, the eldest of Émilie and Alfred Lacan’s three children. His father was a successful soap and oils salesman. Lacan attended the Collège Stanislas between 1907 and 1918. During the early 1920s, Lacan actively engaged with the Parisian literary and artistic avant-garde.

Having met James Joyce, he was present at the Parisian bookshop where the first readings of passages from Ulysses in French and English took place, shortly before it was published in 1922. In 1920, after being rejected for military service on the grounds that he was too thin, Lacan entered medical school. Lacan was involved with the Parisian surrealist movement of the 1930s associating with André Breton, Georges Bataille, Salvador Dalí, and Pablo Picasso. Lacan’s thesis was based on observations of several patients with a primary focus on one female patient whom Lacan called Aimée. Its exhaustive reconstruction of her family history and social relations, on which he based his analysis of her paranoid state of mind, demonstrated his dissatisfaction with traditional psychiatry and the growing influence of Freud on his ideas. Lacan married Marie-Louise Blondin in January 1934 and in January 1937 they had the first of their three children, a daughter named Caroline. A son, Thibaut, was born in August 1939 and a daughter, Sybille, in November 1940.

Nazi Germany’s occupation of France in 1940. Georges Bataille, became Lacan’s mistress and, in 1953, his second wife. During the war their relationship was complicated by the threat of deportation for Sylvia, who was Jewish, since this required her to live in the unoccupied territories. After the war, the SPP recommenced their meetings. In 1945 Lacan visited England for a five-week study trip, where he met the British analysts Ernest Jones, Wilfred Bion and John Rickman. Bion’s analytic work with groups influenced Lacan, contributing to his own subsequent emphasis on study groups as a structure within which to advance theoretical work in psychoanalysis.

In 1949, Lacan presented a new paper on the mirror stage, ‘The Mirror-Stage, as Formative of the I, as Revealed in Psychoanalytic Experience’, to the sixteenth IPA congress in Zurich. In 1951, Lacan started to hold a private weekly seminar in Paris, in which he urged what he described as « a return to Freud » that would concentrate on the linguistic nature of psychological symptomatology. Becoming public in 1953, Lacan’s 27-year-long seminar was highly influential in Parisian cultural life, as well as in psychoanalytic theory and clinical practice. Encouraged by the reception of « the return to Freud » and of his report « The Function and Field of Speech and Language in Psychoanalysis », Lacan began to re-read Freud’s works in relation to contemporary philosophy, linguistics, ethnology, biology, and topology. Starting in 1962, a complex negotiation took place to determine the status of the SFP within the IPA. August 1963, to the IPA setting the condition that registration of the SFP was dependent upon the removal of Lacan from the list of SFP analysts.

With the support of Claude Lévi-Strauss and Louis Althusser, Lacan was appointed lecturer at the École Pratique des Hautes Études. 1966 saw the publication of Lacan’s collected writings, the Écrits, compiled with an index of concepts by Jacques-Alain Miller. Printed by the prestigious publishing house Éditions du Seuil, the Écrits did much to establish Lacan’s reputation to a wider public. The success of the publication led to a subsequent two-volume edition in 1969. By the 1960s, Lacan was associated, at least in the public mind, with the far left in France. Throughout the final decade of his life, Lacan continued his widely followed seminars. Lacan’s failing health made it difficult for him to meet the demands of the year-long Seminars he had been delivering since the fifties, but his teaching continued into the first year of the eighties.

After dissolving his School, the EFP, in January 1980, Lacan travelled to Caracas to found the Freudian Field Institute on 12 July. The Overture to the Caracas Encounter was to be Lacan’s final public address. His last texts from the spring of 1981 are brief institutional documents pertaining to the newly formed Freudian Field Institute. Lacan died on 9 September 1981. Lacan’s « return to Freud » emphasizes a renewed attention to the original texts of Freud, and included a radical critique of ego psychology, whereas « Lacan’s quarrel with Object Relations psychoanalysis » was a more muted affair.

Lacan thought that Freud’s ideas of « slips of the tongue », jokes, and the interpretation of dreams all emphasized the agency of language in subjective constitution. In « The Agency of the Letter in the Unconscious, or Reason Since Freud, » he proposes that « the unconscious is structured like a language. André Green objected that « when you read Freud, it is obvious that this proposition doesn’t work for a minute. What is related to language can only belong to the pre-conscious ». Lacan’s first official contribution to psychoanalysis was the mirror stage, which he described as « formative of the function of the « I » as revealed in psychoanalytic experience. As this concept developed further, the stress fell less on its historical value and more on its structural value. In his fourth Seminar, « La relation d’objet, » Lacan states that « the mirror stage is far from a mere phenomenon which occurs in the development of the child.

It illustrates the conflictual nature of the dual relationship. The mirror stage describes the formation of the Ego via the process of objectification, the Ego being the result of a conflict between one’s perceived visual appearance and one’s emotional experience. This identification is what Lacan called alienation. At six months, the baby still lacks physical co-ordination. Lacan calls the specular image « orthopaedic, » since it leads the child to anticipate the overcoming of its « real specific prematurity of birth.

The vision of the body as integrated and contained, in opposition to the child’s actual experience of motor incapacity and the sense of his or her body as fragmented, induces a movement from « insufficiency to anticipation. The mirror stage also has a significant symbolic dimension, due to the presence of the figure of the adult who carries the infant. The little other is the other who is not really other, but a reflection and projection of the Ego. Evans adds that for this reason the symbol a can represent both objet a and the ego in the Schema L. It is simultaneously the counterpart and the specular image. The little other is thus entirely inscribed in the Imaginary order. The big Other designates radical alterity, an other-ness which transcends the illusory otherness of the imaginary because it cannot be assimilated through identification.

Lacan equates this radical alterity with language and the law, and hence the big Other is inscribed in the order of the symbolic. Indeed, the big Other is the symbolic insofar as it is particularized for each subject. For Lacan « the Other must first of all be considered a locus in which speech is constituted, » so that the Other as another subject is secondary to the Other as symbolic order. We can speak of the Other as a subject in a secondary sense only when a subject occupies this position and thereby embodies the Other for another subject. In arguing that speech originates in neither the Ego nor in the subject but rather in the Other, Lacan stresses that speech and language are beyond the subject’s conscious control.