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Jump to navigation Jump to search « Castellated » redirects here. For the hardware item, see castellated nut. In medieval England and Wales a licence to crenellate granted the holder permission to fortify their property. Such licences were granted by the king, and by the rulers of the counties palatine within their jurisdictions, e. There has been academic debate over the purpose of licensing.
The view of military-focused historians is that licensing restricted the number of fortifications that could be used against a royal army. Battlements were used in the walls surrounding Assyrian towns, as shown on bas reliefs from Nimrud and elsewhere. Late merlons permitted fire from the first firearms. In the battlements of Pompeii, additional protection derived from small internal buttresses or spur walls, against which the defender might stand so as to gain complete protection on one side. Loop-holes were frequent in Italian battlements, where the merlon has much greater height and a distinctive cap. Italian military architects used the so-called Ghibelline or swallowtail battlement, with V-shaped notches in the tops of the merlon, giving a horn-like effect. This would allow the defender to be protected whilst shooting standing fully upright.
In Muslim and African fortifications, the merlons often were rounded. The battlements of the Arabs had a more decorative and varied character, and were continued from the 13th century onwards not so much for defensive purposes as for a crowning feature to the walls. Taghmon Church, Ireland, with Irish crenellations. Irish » crenellations are a distinctive form that appeared in Ireland between the 14th and 17th centuries. These were battlements of a « stepped » form, with each merlon shaped like an inverted ‘T’.
European architects persistently used battlements as a purely decorative feature throughout the Decorated and Perpendicular periods of Gothic architecture. Irish tower houses – Roaringwater Journal ». Ireland in the Virginian Sea: Colonialism in the British Atlantic ». I materiali da costruzione nel castello medievale ».
Scudi di pietra, I castelli e l’arte della guerra tra Medioevo e Rinascimento. This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Coulson, Charles, 1979, « Structural Symbolism in Medieval Castle Architecture » Journal of the British Archaeological Association Vol. Coulson, Charles, 1994, « Freedom to Crenellate by Licence – An Historiographical Revision » Nottingham Medieval Studies Vol. Coulson, Charles, 2003, Castles in Medieval Society, Oxford University Press. Coulson, Charles, Castles in the Medieval Polity – Crenellation, Privilege, and Defence in England, Ireland and Wales.