Métro 1 Pupil Book Euro Edition PDF

Métro 1 Pupil Book Euro Edition PDF is conventionally dated from the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 to the outbreak of World War I in 1914. In the United Kingdom, the Belle Époque overlapped with the late Victorian era and the Edwardian era in a period known as Pax Britannica. The French public’s nostalgia for the Belle Époque period was based largely on the peace and prosperity connected with it in retrospect.


It was not entirely the reality of life in Paris or in France, however. Poverty remained endemic in Paris’s urban slums and rural peasantry for decades after the Belle Époque ended. Conflicts between the government and the Roman Catholic Church were regular during the period. The Moulin Rouge cabaret is a Paris landmark still open for business today. The Folies Bergère was another landmark venue. Burlesque performance styles were more mainstream in Belle Époque Paris than in more staid cities of Europe and America. The Eiffel Tower, built to serve as the grand entrance to the 1889 World’s Fair held in Paris, became the accustomed symbol of the city, to its inhabitants and to visitors from around the world.

A « boyish figure » didn’t actually become a mainstream fashion ideal until the 1920s. Cheap coal and cheap labor contributed to the cult of the orchid and made possible the perfection of fruits grown under glass, as the apparatus of state dinners extended to the upper classes. Fashion in the Belle Epoque era was the peak of luxury living for a select few. Not only did this era bring in new trends to fashion, they also kept trends from the Edwardian trends. The Belle Epoque was very different from the Edwardian era even though they used the styles because the garments were not influenced by the English King or the Prince of Wales. They wanted nothing to do with the era.

French cuisine continued to climb in the esteem of European gourmets during the Belle Époque. The word « ritzy » was invented during this era, referring to the posh atmosphere and clientele of the Hôtel Ritz Paris. Large public buildings such as the Opéra Garnier devoted enormous spaces to interior designs as Art Nouveau show places. The years between the Franco-Prussian War and World War I were characterized by unusual political stability in western and central Europe. The Belle Époque featured a class structure that ensured cheap labor. Meanwhile, the international workers’ movement also reorganized itself and reinforced pan-European, class-based identities among the classes whose labor supported the Belle Époque. The most notable transnational socialist organization was the Second International.

France enjoyed relative political stability at home during the Belle Époque. The sudden death of President Félix Faure while in office took the country by surprise, but had no destabilizing effect on the government. The most serious political issue to face the country during this period was the Dreyfus Affair. European politics saw very few regime changes, the major exception being Portugal, which experienced a republican revolution in 1910.

The Belle Époque was an era of great scientific and technological advancement in Europe and the world in general. A number of French inventors patented products with a lasting impact on modern society. After the telephone joined the telegraph as a vehicle for rapid communication, French inventor Édouard Belin developed the Belinograph, or Wirephoto, to transmit photos by telephone. France was a leader of early cinema technology. The cinématographe was invented in France by Léon Bouly and put to use by Auguste and Louis Lumière, brothers who held the first film screenings in the world. Although the aeroplane remained a fascinating experiment, France was a leader in aviation.

France established the world’s first national air force in 1910. Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity in 1896 while working with phosphorescent materials. It was during this era that biologists and physicians finally came to understand the germ theory of disease, and the field of bacteriology was established. Louis Pasteur was perhaps the most famous scientist in France during this time. In 1890, Vincent van Gogh died.