Paleorient 32.2 PDF

The first PPNB period involved construction of massive earth architecture, layering soil with reeds to construct walls. The inhabitants of Tell Aswad invented the brick on site by modelling earth clods with beds of reeds, which they then paleorient 32.2 PDF into raw bricks and eventually dried in later stages. Tools and weapons were made of flint including Aswadian and Jericho point arrowheads.


Other finds included grinding equipment, stone and mud containers, and ornaments made of various materials. The graves of more than one hundred well-preserved individuals were found. In the first half of occupation these were found in or around the homes, in later stages cemeteries are isolated outside the village. A collection of nine technically and stylistically similar, over-modelled, skulls were retrieved from two areas.

Tell Aswad has been cited as being of importance for the evolution of organised cities due to the appearance of building materials, organized plans and collective work. It has provided insight into the « explosion of knowledge » in the northern Levant during the PPNB Neolithic stage following dam construction. Understanding of the role of Tell Aswad in the beginnings of farming has been complicated by changes in dating. 2006 excavations showed that Tell Aswad was not occupied during the PPNA period. Instead the domesticated plants are present from the Early PPNB 8700 to 8200 cal BC onwards.

Bakker-Heeres’s identifications from the earlier excavations. A large number of goats were evident in the early stages indicating they were either hunted or herded. This is an important issue because the period when animal domestication first took place is still an open question. From the middle PPNB, the presence of corralled animals is evident.

Cauvin, Jacques, The Birth of the Gods and the origins of agriculture, Cambridge, 2000. Foraging, Farming, and Social Complexity in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of the Southern Levant: A Review and Synthesis, Journal of World Prehistory, Volume 16, Number 4. Fouilles de 1971, Annales Archéologiques Arabes Syriennes XXII, 1972, p. Chronologie absolue de Tell Aswad, Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 70, 1973, p. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 71, 1974, p. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 73, 1976, p.