This article is about the philosophical notion of idealism. In philosophy, Idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or perceptions of Values PDF as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Idealism theories are mainly divided into two groups.
Subjective idealism takes as its starting point the given fact of human consciousness seeing the existing world as a combination of sensation. Objective idealism posits the existence of an objective consciousness which exists before and, in some sense, independently of human ones. The earliest extant arguments that the world of experience is grounded in the mental derive from India and Greece. The Hindu idealists in India and the Greek Neoplatonists gave panentheistic arguments for an all-pervading consciousness as the ground or true nature of reality.
Idealism as a philosophy came under heavy attack in the West at the turn of the 20th century. The most influential critics of both epistemological and ontological idealism were G. Idealism is a term with several related meanings. The term entered the English language by 1743. Any philosophy that assigns crucial importance to the ideal or spiritual realm in its account of human existence may be termed « idealist ». Metaphysical idealism is an ontological doctrine that holds that reality itself is incorporeal or experiential at its core.