Portuguese Internet service provider MEO offers smartphone contracts with monthly data limits, and sells additional monthly packages for particular data services. Network neutrality, or more simply net neutrality, is the principle that Internet when Internet Meets Entertainment : The Economics of Digital Media Industries, Edition en anglais PDF providers should treat all Internet communications equally and not discriminate or charge differently based on user, content, website, platform, application, type of equipment, or method of communication.
For two years, our team has striven to explain to engineers that copyrighted contents were economic object which differ condderably from other kinds of information material. And consequently that the wah to enhance their digital distribution should differ from what an engineer could imagine as the smoothest way to convey private information flows. The confrontation between the technical vision of an equipement industry trying to raise the efficiency of digital delivery systems and that of economists defending the concept of Intellectual Property and its implications in a digital environment has been a quite unique and very stimulating experience. This essay reveals the outcome of this interaction. It is a discussion tool between two industries. Its objective is to clarify for the two parties involved – the creative industries and the information technology sector – the economic characteristics of copyrighted content production and distribution : intellectual property, sunk costs, signalisation, pricing issues, vertical relations, network effects, distribution system roll-out, and markets and competition. It analyses how these characteristics, combined with national regulatory policies, shape the industrial organization of the digital content distribution systems. The book addresses Media and IT professionals, bankers, economists, students and policy makers.
The term was coined by Columbia University media law professor Tim Wu in 2003, as an extension of the longstanding concept of a common carrier, which was used to describe the role of telephone systems. Research suggests that a combination of policy instruments will help realize the range of valued political and economic objectives central to the network neutrality debate. Net neutrality is administrated on a national or regional basis, though much of the world’s focus has been on the conflict over net neutrality in the United States. Net neutrality in the United States has been a topic since early 1990’s, as they were one of the world leaders in online service providing. However, they face the same problems as the rest of the world.
Network neutrality is the principle that all Internet traffic should be treated equally. Internet traffic includes all of the different messages, files and data sent over the Internet, including, for example, emails, digital audio files, digital video files, etc. A more detailed proposed definition of technical and service network neutrality suggests that service network neutrality is the loyalty to the paradigm that operation of a service at a certain layer is not influenced by any data other than the data interpreted at that layer, and in accordance with the protocol specification for that layer. Under an « open Internet » system, the full resources of the Internet and means to operate on it should be easily accessible to all individuals, companies, and organizations. Applicable concepts include: net neutrality, open standards, transparency, lack of Internet censorship, and low barriers to entry. Proponents of net neutrality see this as an important component of an « open Internet », wherein policies such as equal treatment of data and open web standards allow those using the Internet to easily communicate, and conduct business and activities without interference from a third party. In contrast, a « closed Internet » refers to the opposite situation, wherein established persons, corporations, or governments favour certain uses, restrict access to necessary web standards, artificially degrade some services, or explicitly filter out content.
The concept of a « dumb network », comprising dumb pipes, has existed since at least the early 1990s. A dumb network is a network with little or no control or management of its use patterns. In a dumb network, the endpoints are thought to be where the intelligence lies, and as such, proponents argue that the network should leave the management and operation of communications and data transfer to the end users, not a government bureau or Internet company. These conversations usually refer to these two concepts as being analogous to the concepts of open and closed Internet respectively. Content Layer: Contains services such as communication as well as entertainment videos and music. Applications Layer: Contains services such as e-mail and web browsers. Physical Layer: Consists of the services that provide all others such as cable or wireless connections.
The end-to-end principle of network design was first laid out in the 1981 paper End-to-end arguments in system design by Jerome H. They argued that reliable systems tend to require end-to-end processing to operate correctly, in addition to any processing in the intermediate system. They pointed out that most features in the lowest level of a communications system have costs for all higher-layer clients, even if those clients do not need the features, and are redundant if the clients have to re-implement the features on an end-to-end basis. For example, telephone networks employ admission control to limit user demand on the network core by refusing to create a circuit for the requested connection.
Network neutrality: Neutrality principles are codified ex-ante, and a judicial route is available for redress. Connectivity providers can implement traffic management, but the rules must be the same for everyone. The antitrust alternative, takes more time and offers few precedents. Device neutrality: Similarly, neutrality principles are codified ex-ante and avail judicial remedies. Device vendors can establish policies for managing applications, but they, too, must be applied neutrally.
An unsuccessful bill to enforce network and device neutrality was introduced in Italy in 2015 by Hon. Discrimination by protocol is the favouring or blocking information based on aspects of the communications protocol that the computers are using to communicate. During the 1990s, creating a non-neutral Internet was technically infeasible. Orange network, made a deal with Google, in which they charge Google for the traffic incurred on the Orange network. Aside from the zero-rating method, ISPs will also use certain strategies to reduce costs of pricing plans such as the use of sponsored data.